東南亞國家國協人民與政府之基本義務宣言
本宣言經亞洲人權區域會議第一次大會,於1983年12月9日在印尼雅加達通過採行,並於當日提交東協秘書處。本區域會議是一非政府組織,其成員多數為法律學家以及其他對人權有興趣者。

第五條

第一項
政府有責任確保人民之最低限度且合宜的生活標準,並減少各經濟與社會階層之間的隔閡,以使其能獲得所需的資源與服務、並且擁有相同的財富、權力和機會,不因其種族、性別、語言、宗教信仰、政治理念、經濟或社會地位、或是出身而受到差別待遇。

第八條

第一項
政府有責任承認文化社群之成員均與其他市民一般有同等權利,包括在參與公共生活上擁有相同的基礎,並且亦有權採取行動以確保此平等地位。若此等平等權在過去曾被否定,政府有責任提供這些文化社群特別的代表以確保它們能獲得真正的平等。此外,政府更有責任以強制力確保這些人民有權利能夠保存其認同、傳統、語言、文化遺產和習慣法,以及保護其祖先的領域,並且應其要求提供所有照顧與設備助其發展,但是必須尊重他們自己對於希望與社會大眾保持何種態度與距離的權利。同時,這些文化社群亦有責任在行使其權利時,充分尊重國家整體的正當利益、以及國家領土的完整與政治團結。
第二項
此外,政府亦有責任以準備將原來屬於這些文化社群的土地歸還原主的觀點來檢驗其土地政策,並且牢記曾經或者正於這些社群當中所發生的改變。

第九條

第三項
因此,軍隊有責任

第一款
依本宣言之規定尊重每個人以及每個民族的權利,不因其種族、性別、語言、文化、宗教、政治信仰、經濟或社會地位,或是出身而對其有所歧視;
第二款
接受大眾關於國家政策所提出的疑問,同時避免強加其意見和觀點於民眾。

第十一條

第二項
政府有責任,在其依法有效宣布的緊急狀況下,並且除非是已無他法可行的情況時,採取限制人權的措施;並且不得因民眾之種族、性別、語言、宗教信仰、政治理念、經濟或社會地位、或是出身而對其有差別待遇。

Declaration of the Basic Duties of ASEAN Peoples and Governments
Declaration adopted by the First General Assembly of the Regional Council on Human Rights in Asia on December 9, 1983, in Jakarta, Indonesia, and presented to the ASEAN Secretariat on the same day. The Regional Council was a non-governmental organisation largely composed of jurists and others interested in human rights. 

Article 5

1. It is the duty of government to ensure a minimum decent standard of living for all the people, reduce the gap in access to goods and services by different economic and social sectors, and equalise wealth, power and opportunities without distinctions based on race, sex, language, religious belief, political conviction, economic or social status, or ethnic origin. 

Article 8

1. It is the duty of government to recognise that members of cultural communities have the same rights as other citizens including the right to participate on an equal basis in public life, and to take affirmative action to ensure such equality. Where equality has been denied in the past, it is the duty of government to provide special representation of cultural communities in order to obtain true equality. It is moreover the duty of government to enforce respect for the right of such peoples to preserve their identity, traditions, language, cultural heritage and customary laws, and enforce protection of their ancestral domains, providing them, if they so desire, with all care and facilities to develop, but respecting their right to determine for themselves the manner and extent of their relationship with the larger society. It is the duty of cultural communities, in turn, to exercise their rights with due respect for the legitimate interests of the nation as a whole, respecting the territorial integrity and political unity of the nation. 

2. It is further the duty of government to review its land policies with a view to restoring all ancestral lands belonging to cultural communities to the tribe, bearing in mind the changes that have taken or are taking place in those communities. 

Article 9

3. Consequently, it is the duty of the military (a) to respect the rights of an persons and peoples in accordance with this Declaration, without discrimination based on race, sex, language, culture, religion, political conviction, economic or social status, or ethnic origin; and (b) to accept the popular will on questions of national policy, refraining from imposing its own views and opinions on the people. 

Article 11

2. It is the duty of government, under a state of emergency validly declared, to take only such measures restrictive of human rights as are strictly required by the exigencies of the situation, so that no less stringent measures would suffice, and to enforce such measures without discrimination based on race, sex, language, religious belief, political conviction, economic or social status, or ethnic origin.


Tlahuitoltepec印地安-拉丁美洲原住民族基本權利宣言
Tlahuitoltepec,墨西哥,1994年5月18日。

第一條

我們代表印地安-拉丁美洲原住民族一致同意,我們永遠是我們民族的一份子,擁有我們自己的歷史、宗教、文化、教育、語言以及其他我們民族的基本特徵。

第十三條

我們原住民族瞭解我們的文化傳達出我們與大地;我們民族之間;以及做為人類共同體一份子的關係。我們文化的組成元素包括語言、社會、政治及經濟習慣、藝術、科學、醫學及宗教。

Declaration of Tlahuitoltepec on the Fundamental Rights of the Indigenous Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Indo-Latin America
Tlahuitoltepec, Mexico, 18 May 1994.

Article 1

We the representatives of the indigenous Indo-Latin American nations, nationalities and peoples unanimously agree that we have always been and will forever continue to be peoples with our own history, religion, culture, education, language and other fundamental characteristics of nations, nationalities and peoples.

Article 13

We the indigenous nations, nationalities and peoples understand our cultures to be any manifestation that expresses the comprehensive concept of our relationship with our Mother Earth and our relationships among ourselves, as human beings in a community. Out cultures include elements such as language, social, political and economic customs, the arts, sciences, medicine and religion.


亞洲原住民部落民族權利宣言
經亞洲原住民族公約大會於1993年5月18-23日,在泰國清邁所舉行的會議中採行。

亞洲原住民族瞭解其出身。我們是被征服土地之原本住民的後代,我們亦認為自己不同於其他勝利一方的人民。我們有自己的語言、宗教、習慣以及世界觀,同時我們有責任將這些傳遞給下一代。我們沒有集權的政治制度,但是在社群方面卻非常有組織,並且能夠非常有效率地達成共識,做出決定。

亞洲殖民主義者與前殖民者聯合對我們進行再殖民的行為,以「民族塑造」和「發展」之名,剝奪我們自決的希望。我們被逼迫幾近至絕種的境地,不僅是因為國家的侵略,以及有計畫地將其他民族遷移至我們原有的領域,更因為統治者對我們進行的同化工作,強迫我們接受另一種陌生的語言、宗教與政治觀念。

我們重申復興傳統制度的權利,我們有權使用自己的語言,並且以我們自己的世界觀生活、並據此教育我們的下一代。

Declaration on the Rights of Asian Indigenous Tribal Peoples
Adopted at the Asian Indigenous Peoples Pact General Assembly Meeting, Chiangmai, Thailand, 18-23 May 1993.

…We Asian indigenous peoples know who we are. We are the descendants of the original inhabitants of territories which have been conquered; and we consider ourselves distinct from the rest of the prevailing society. we have our own languages, religions, customs and world-view and we are determined to transmit these to future generations. We do not have centralised political institutions but are organised instead at the level of the community and have highly developed methods for arriving at decisions by consensus… 

…Asian colonialists have joined hands with previous colonisers to recolonise us in the name of "nation-building" and "development" and to deprive us of our lights to self-determination. We are being pushed to extinction not only through invasion, planned population transfers and transmigration of other peoples to our territories but also through the efforts of dominant Asians to assimilate us, to impose languages, religions and political concepts which are alien to us… 

…We assert the right to revitalise our traditional institutions, to speak our languages and live according to our world view and to educate our children on these…


保護歐洲族群條約草案
歐洲國家聯邦,波蘭格旦斯克,1994年5月12日。

第二條

第一項
於此條約草案中,「族群」一詞表示一個社群:

第四款
其擁有特殊之族群、語言或文化特徵,不同於其他人口。

第四條

第一項
各族群有權獲得對其認同之尊重,亦有權促其發展;意即,他們有權利自由地表達、保存並且發展其族群、文化和語言認同,同時在各個方面維持和發展其文化,不受任何同化之引誘。

第五條

第四項
各國採行這些為了確立以及維持平等機會的特別保護措施時,應特別考量以下權利:

第一款
語言

第六條

第一項
各族群人民有權在私下或公開場合中、不論以口語或書寫的方式使用其母語(族群語言)。
第二項
各族群人民有權接觸政府行政機構、司法當權、所有公家機構、或所有為公共目的所設立的機構,不論其法律地位為何。同時,各族群人民亦有權以/或者以其母語(族群語言)與這些機構進行溝通。
第三項
應確保令上述權利得以在各族群居住地區的行政單位中直接行使、或至少透過翻譯進行。
第四項
各族群人民有權:

第一款
於其遭受逮捕時,立即以其母語(族群語言)被告知所以遭到逮捕的理由、或任何遭到控訴的罪行;
第二款
於其遭到犯罪指控時,立即以其母語(族群語言)詳細地被告知其被控之罪名的性質和原因,並且以其母語為自己進行辯護,必要時得獲得免費的翻譯協助。

第五項
在各族群居住的區域,其有權在同等的立法、行政以及司法地位上使用其語言,特別是在公共團體以及其他通訊事務上的使用,如官方出版物、一般資訊、官方指示,以及政府為公領域所作成、或計畫為此用途的法案。
第六項
各族群人民有權以其母語(族群語言)使用其原來的姓名,並令其獲得官方認可。本權利同時包含免費使其得以將姓名恢復成為原來的母語形式。
第七項
在各族群居住的區域,其有權要求以其母語(族群語言)標示地名、交通號誌、各類標語、以及其他類似之大眾資訊。如此安排並不會剝奪政府當權以國家或官方語言陳列上述資訊的權利。然而,任何武斷地、對於原來以其母語(族群語言)所標示之名稱所進行的變更,是不被容許的。

第七條

第一項
各族群人民有權學習其母語(族群語言),並且在所有教育體系中以此受教,包括除了義務教育以外的幼稚園與學前教育、次級教育、技術與職業教育、在職進修教育、大學與成人教育。
第二項
為確保此項權利,應在各族群居住地區內,設置適當數量之公立學校和其他教育機構。
第三項
在各族群居住的領域之外,若其學生人數不足以構成一個班級時,仍須設法令其得以學習其母語(族群語言)。
第四項
在義務教育以外的領域,如幼稚園與學前教育、次級教育、技術與職業教育、在職進修教育、大學與成人教育等,應設立合適之機構以確保其母語(族群語言)之教授;同時,在國外以其母語(族群語言)、或最相近之語言所完成的學位應予承認。倘若這些機構應招收之人數不足時,在國外以其母語或最相近之語言所完成的學位應予承認。
第五項
各族群人民有權在合法的教育體系中設立並管理其學校、教育與培訓機構。
第六項
為享有其教育權利,各族群人民至少有權依其在總人口當中所佔的比例、接受各層級與各種形式的教育;此權利同時適用於在國外以其母語(族群語言)、或最相近之語言所進行之教育。
第七項
以母語(族群語言)所進行的學校教育,其教師應為相同之母語使用者。在少數與多數族群一同受教的體系中,必須有特別且合宜的規範來保障族群學生的利益。
第八項
在族群的學校中,各族群人民在國家教育法規所制定之普遍原則的架構下,有權:

第一款
共同決定課程、教師與督學之指派
第二款
依其個別需求選擇科目
第三款
接受有關其歷史與文化的教育

第九項
各國有責任在經濟上支持各族群之教育體系。各國應確保希望進入私立學校就讀之族群學子得以遂行其願。這些私立學校應受到國家的提倡和經濟支援,至少應受到與其他地區之私立學校一樣的待遇。
第十項
各國應確保族群人民在義務教育體制下能夠學習國家語言。
第十一項
在族群居住的區域,應確保教導多數族群人民有關族群的語言、歷史和文化。

第十條

第一項
族群人民有權透過印刷或影音媒體以其母語(族群語言)傳播與交換資訊;同時,他們亦有權在國內和國外獲得此類資訊。
第二項
特別是,他們有相等的權利接觸國家或其他的大眾媒體,以及屬於他們自己的溝通管道,並且應獲得適當補助以達成此目的。
第三項
獲得資訊的權利包括接收從國外以其母語所播送之電視和廣播節目。

第十一條

第四項
在族群居住的地區,政府有義務在所有公家機構、或為公眾目的所設立的機構當中施行多語政策。

Draft Convention on the Protection of Ethnic Groups in Europe
Federal Union of European Nationalities, Gdansk, Poland, 12 May 1994.

Article 2

1. For the purposes of this Protocol the term "ethnic group" shall mean a community: 

(d) which have ethnical, linguistic or cultural features different from those of the rest of the population,

Article 4

1. Persons belonging to ethnic groups shall have the right to the respect, evolution and development of their identity, i.e. they shall have the right freely to express, preserve and develop their ethnic, cultural and linguistic identity, and to maintain and develop their culture in all its aspects, free of any attempts at assimilation.

Article 5

4. Such special protective measures for the establishment and maintenance of equal opportunities shall be adopted by the state parties with regard to the rights of in particular: 

(a) language;

Article 6

1. Persons belonging to ethnic groups shall have the right to use their mother tongue (ethnic group language) in private as well as in public, both orally and in writing. 

2. Persons belonging to ethnic groups shall have this right also in contacts with the public administration, the judicial authorities and with all public institutions or institutions intended for public purposes regardless of their legal status; they shall be entitled to receive communications from these institutions in - or also in - their mother tongue (ethnic group language). 

3. The exercise of this right shall be guaranteed in all administrative units of their settlement areas preferably directly, at least through translation. 

4. Persons belonging to ethnic groups shall have in particular the right: 

(a) when arrested, to be informed promptly in their mother tongue (ethnic group language) of the reasons of their arrest and of any charge against them; 
(b) when charged with a criminal offence, to be informed in their mother tongue (ethnic group language) promptly and in detailed manner of the nature and cause of the accusation against them and to defend themselves in this language, if necessary with the free assistance of an interpreter. 

5. In the settlement areas of persons belonging to ethnic groups they shall have the right to the use and equal status of their language in legislation, administration and judiciary, in particular within public collegial bodies and in communications such as official publications, general information, official signs as well as acts directed to the public sphere or intended for the public use. 

6. Persons belonging to ethnic groups shall have the right to use their own surnames and first names in their mother tongue (ethnic group language) and to have them officially recognised. This right shall also include the re-establishment of personal names in the form of their own language free of charge. 

7. In the settlement areas of persons belonging to ethnic groups they shall have the right to local names, signs, inscriptions and other similar public information in the mother tongue (ethnic group language). This does not deprive the authorities of their right to display the above-mentioned information in the official language or languages of the state; however, any arbitrary modification of traditional denominations in the mother tongue (ethnic group language) which hitherto have been used exclusively in original form in an ethnic group language shall be inadmissible.

Article 7

1. Persons belonging to ethnic groups shall have the right to learn their mother tongue (ethnic group language) and to be instructed in it within the whole system of education including, besides the compulsory schooling, e.g. also the kindergartens, preschool education, secondary education, technical and vocational education, vocational continuing education, university and adult education. 

2. This right shall be guaranteed through an appropriate number of state schools and other educational establishments, located in accordance with the geographical distribution of the persons belonging to an ethnic group. 

3. Whenever outside the settlement areas of persons belonging to ethnic groups the minimum number of pupils required to build a class is not achieved in schools reasonably near, the pupils in question shall be in any case entitled to learn their mother tongue (ethnic group language). 

4. For sectors outside the existing compulsory school system such as kindergartens, preschool education, secondary education, technical and vocational education, vocational continuing education, university and adult education, appropriate institutions guaranteeing the instruction in the mother tongue (ethnic group language) shall be established and diplomas issued abroad for courses completed in the mother tongue (ethnic group language) or in the nearest related language shall be recognised. If such institutions should not be demanded by a sufficient number of persons belonging to ethnic groups, the diplomas issued abroad for courses completed in their language or in the nearest language shall be recognised. 

5. Persons belonging to ethnic groups shall have the right to set up and manage their own schools, educational and training establishments within the framework of the legal education system. 

6. To enjoy the right of education, persons belonging to ethnic groups shall at least be entitled at all levels and for all types of education, to a share in public grants proportionate to their share in the total population; this shall apply also for education abroad in the mother tongue (ethnic group language) or in the nearest related language. 

7. Schooling of and in the mother tongue (ethnic group language) shall be in principle provided by teachers for whom the respective language is also their mother tongue. For educational systems based on joint teaching for persons belonging to ethnic groups and those of the majority population, special rules shall be provided taking into account in an appropriate manner the interests of persons belonging to ethnic groups. 

8. In the case of minority schools the persons belonging to ethnic groups, within the framework of the general principles of national school legislation, shall have the right to: 

(a) co-determination in the establishment of curricula, the appointment of teachers and the supervision of schools; 
(b) adapt school subjects to their particular needs; 
(c) instruction also of their own history and culture. 

9. State parties shall be responsible for the financing of the educational system of persons belonging to ethnic groups. The state parties shall guarantee that pupils belonging to ethnic groups who wish to attend private schools, may do so. Such private schools shall be promoted or financed by the state party at least to the same extent as private schools in general are promoted or financed by that state. 

10. The state parties shall guarantee that persons belonging to ethnic groups shall be taught the national language within the compulsory schooling system. 

11. In areas in which ethnic groups are settled, persons belonging to the majority population shall be guaranteed to be taught the language of the ethnic group as well as their history and culture.

Article 10

1. Persons belonging to ethnic groups shall have the right to disseminate and exchange information through print and audio-visual media in their mother tongue (ethnic group language); they shall have likewise the right to have access to such information within and across national frontiers. 

2. In particular, they shall have the right to equal access to the state's or to other public mass media, as well as the right to their own means of communication and adequate public subsidies for this purpose. 

3. The right of information shall include the freedom to receive television and radio programmes broadcast from foreign countries in which the same mother tongue is spoken. 

Article 11

4. In the settlement areas of persons belonging to ethnic groups, institutional multilingualism shall be compulsory in all public institutions or institutions intended for public purposes.


保護少數族群國際公約草案
本公約由「國家自主權與區域主義之國際機構」(Internationales Institut für Nationalitätenrecht und Regionalismus) 起草,收錄於Edward Chaszar所著之《少數族群的國際問題》The International Problem of National Minorities,頁121-134,印第安那賓州大學1988年出版。

第三條

各族群之成員有權在私下、以及所有社會、經濟或其他類似之關係當中、或是在公開場合使用其語言或方言,不論其所屬之族群的法律地位為何。

第七條

國家不得執行、支持或促成人為或強制性的同化。

第十條

任何人自願與其所屬國家之多數族群同化的權利不得遭到否決。

第十一條

第二項
本公約所定義之少數族群,意指某國家中的一群人,在人口上居於少數、在政治上缺乏自治地位、並且擁有相異於其他民眾之族群和語言特色,同時表現出,儘管是含蓄性地,保存其文化、傳統或語言的團結意向,亦秉持要求被視為族群之明確意願者。

第十三條

第二項
國家列為主要的保護項目包括:

第三款
語言自主。

第十六條

某國中的族群成員應被賦予第十四條第二、三款所提及之自決形式,倘若其擁有相異於其他民眾之族群和語言特色,同時表現出,儘管是含蓄性地,保存其文化、傳統或語言的團結意向,亦秉持要求此種安排之明確意願者。

第十八條

族群有權使用特別設置之無線電話和電視頻道,這些頻道必須符合相關之國際協定,以及在適當時間以其語言傳播任何節目。

第十九條

文化自主包含進一步在教育體系各層級當中提供以其語言所進行之教學。族群的子女均有權接受此種教育,只要其監護者願意使用此項權利。相關課程應同時考慮各族群的需要以及該國憲法所制定的原則。族群之教育機構所頒發的畢業證明應獲得普遍性的承認。『聯合國教科文組織反對教育歧視公約』中所規範的條文亦適用於此。

第二十條

第一項
語言自主包括促進母語在行政與司法機構當中的使用。若某行政或司法地區超過一定比例的居民屬於一或以上之少數族群,此比例經該國政府當局與族群代表彼此同意後確定,族群之語言得被承認為官方語言。國家對於這些地區不應劃定界線以防止本權利之實行。在這些實行語言自主的地區,地理名稱應以雙語或多語標示。
第二項
本語言自主權利應特別考量個人自由、以及審判和所有社會福利事務上的公平性。
第三項
必要時,政府當局在公職人員的任命上應考量適用族群基準的可行性,尤其是在那些承認族群語言為官方語言的區域。在族群居住的地區,政府、省和地方行政區所任命的公職人員當中,應有一定比例的數目是保留給少數族群的成員;此比例經該國政府當局與族群代表彼此同意後確定。

Draft of an International Convention on the Protection of National or Ethnic Groups or Minorities
Draft prepared by the Internationales Institut für Nationalitätenrecht und Regionalismus. Reprinted from Chaszar, Edward (1988), The International Problem of National Minorities, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, at pp. 121-134.

Article 3

Every member of a national or ethnic group or minority has the right to use his own language or dialect in private, in all social, economic and similar relations, and in public, notwithstanding the legal position of his group or minority.

Article 7

The state must not undertake, support or favour a policy of artificial or enforced assimilation.

Article 10

Nobody may be denied the right to assimilate voluntarily with the majority of the population of the state of which he is a national.

Article 11

2. A national or ethnic group or minority in the sense of the present Convention exists if a number of nationals of the given state, being in numerically inferior, non-dominant position, and possessing ethnic or linguistic characteristics differing from the rest of the population, show, if only implicitly, a sense of solidarity with a view towards preserving their culture, traditions, or language, and possessing also an adequate representation, asks for legal recognition as a national or ethnic group or minority. 

Article 13

2. The main kinds of protection on a national level are the following: 

(c) linguistic autonomy;

Article 16

The types of self-determination mentioned in Article 14 (b) and (c) may also be granted if, in a given territory of the state, nationals reside possessing ethnic or linguistic characteristics differing from the rest of the population and showing if only implicitly, a sense of solidarity with a view towards preserving their culture, traditions, or language and also possessing an adequate representation, ask for such an arrangement.

Article 18

A national or ethnic minority or group has the right to use a specific wireless and television channel - channels to be accorded in concordance with relevant international agreements - and to transmit any program in its own language at adequate times. 

Article 19

Cultural autonomy consists further in an educational system providing instruction on all educational levels in the language of the group. Every child belonging to the group has the right to this education, provided the persons responsible for his education are willing to make use of this right. The relevant curricula have to take into account the needs of the group as well as the principles enshrined in the state's Constitution. Diplomas and certificates issued by the educational institutions of the group shall have public recognition. The provisions of the UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education of 1960 shall be applied respectively.

Article 20

1. Linguistic autonomy consists in facilitating the use of the mother tongue before administrative and judicial authorities. If more than a certain percentage of the inhabitants of a certain judicial or administrative district - the percentage to be fixed by agreement between the competent state authorities and the representatives of the relevant minority or group - belong to one or more national or ethnic minority or group, their language has to be recognised as official languages. District may not be delimited in a way so as to prevent the realisation of this right. In cases of linguistic autonomy, topographic signs have to bear bi- or multilingual inscriptions. 

2. This linguistic autonomy should particularly be observed with regard to the rights of personal liberty, of fair trial and in all matters of social welfare. 

3. If necessary, state authorities shall consider the possibility of applying ethnic criteria with regard to the assignments of posts, especially in regions where the group language is recognised as the official language. In areas where the group resides, a percentage of the posts in the public service of the state, the provinces and communes - the percentage to be fixed by agreement between the competent state authorities and the representatives of the relevant minority or group - shall be made available to members of that minority or group.


保護少數族群國際公約草案,適用歐州議會之會員國
本公約由「國家自主權與區域主義之國際機構」(Internationales Institut für Nationalitätenrecht und Regionalismus) 起草,收錄於Edward Chaszar所著之《少數族群的國際問題》The International Problem of National Minorities,頁135-143,印第安那賓州大學1988年出版。

第十一條

賦予區域自治機關之權限的範圍與限度,應根據少數族群之合法代表的意見,以法律規定之。自治機關至少應被賦予在與文化本質相關事務上的廣泛權限(文化自主)以及基本之社會與經濟政策的決定權。

第十四條

賦予半自治實體機關之權限的範圍與限度,應根據少數族群之合法代表的意見,以法律規定之。此條文必須規範該實體內部的組織架構,並且應包含有關少數族群之文化發展、以及對於其語言權利之尊重的願景。

第十五條

在擁有自治權的地區,少數族群的語言應作為行政單位的官方語言,包括郵件之處理、鐵路和公立醫院之服務、社會救濟和保險機構,以及在法庭當中(除非訴訟當事者一方位於此自治區內;而在法人的情形,除非其在自治區中設有分支機構)。當行政部門和裁決所是專為某特定地方行政單位而設置、或者其設立之層級為地方行政單位者(包括仲裁機構),行政機關內部進行溝通時以及法院進行仲裁時,應使用該少數族群的語言。

第十六條

倘若某半自治區在地方行政單位當中(包括行政區之部分或行政區內設有獨立運作之次級機關的派系)至少有20%、或者在行政與司法區域中至少有6%、或者在較大的行政區域當中至少有5%的人口屬於少數族群,則該少數族群的語言應為官方語言。

第十七條

在擁有自治權的地區,地理名詞應以少數族群的語言標示。而在半自治地區,地理名詞應以雙語標示,唯不論在字體、字型以及書寫的版面配置上,少數族群語言應和官方語言相同。上述兩種情況當中,應備有以少數族群語言所寫成的書面資料。地理名詞包括所有指示牌、政府機關的名稱和指示、學校、鐵路局、郵局、警察局、公立醫院、社會保險單位、以及官方地圖上的標示。在交通告示牌上,地方行政單位的名稱僅需以該區的語言寫成。

第十八條

各地區標準的語言應為「少數族群語言」。然而在所有當事者均能立即理解的情況下,亦可在處理公共事務使用口語方言。

第十九條

應為所有需要學前教育之少數族群的子女、且其申請人數已達一定程度者,設立幼稚園與學前教育機構。對於此條件之成立與否的決定應以寬大、順應的態度為之。用來教導與照護學童的語言應為少數族群語言;可適用上述第十八條規定。

第二十條

少數族群有權在其居住地區內建立並維持一定數量之初級學校,以符合義務教育之需求,並且以其族群語言作為教學之用。少數語言族群(國家多數語言少數族群以外的公民團體、不論其根據第九條所規定之職業為何)對於其傳統語言地區均有權利如此要求。各自治機構得要求將官方語言在初等教育的教學上列為必修科目。在屬於語言少數族群的初級學校中必須教授官方語言。

第二十一條

學校的設立,應根據較高層級教育機構之(包括職業教育與/或其他較高層級之學習機構)學童家長或其監護人的希望,或是少數族群或自治區督學(當有此一職位設置之情況—第二十五條)的要求。為因應一定數目之學生的要求,學校課程應提供有關少數族群語言之教學科目。對於此條件之成立與否的決定應以寬大、順應的態度為之。

第二十二條

當第一學期中、每一主要科目均有來自少數族群之足夠的人數申請修習時,該少數族群有權設置公立大學或類似之教育機構。對於此條件之成立與否的決定應以寬大、順應的態度為之。

第二十三條

在少數族群或少數語言族群的初等與高等學校教育上,應確保課程中需包含有關該少數族群或少數語言族群的文化、歷史、社會與經濟結構等科目;同時,這些科目的教學應以該少數族群的語言進行。

第二十四條

少數族群得根據國家教育法令、自發建造上述第十九至二十二條所提及之教育機構與學校。在這些情況下,少數少數族群應負責這些機構的材料與人事費用。如果他們無法負擔這些花費,國家(或假設有關教育事務是屬於聯邦或其相關部門的管轄)應負責補償這筆支出。

第二十五條

應為少數族群和少數語言族群的教育機構與學校設置特別的教育監督者。此公職人員必須同時精通這些少數族群或少數語言族群的語言、以及官方語言。

第二十八條

倘若某少數族群未擁有屬於自己的廣播或電視基地台,同時也因為財務上的困難無法擁有這些設備,該少數族群有權在充分的過渡期間當中、於適當時段使用公立或公營的電台。對於何謂「充分」或「適當」之決定應以寬大、順應的態度為之。為少數族群所製作的廣播與電視節目應由支持保存族群的成員來進行。除一般稅收之外,少數族群不應因製作這些節目而承受經濟負擔。倘若該國中僅有私營的媒體,國家(或聯邦之部分區域)應提供少數族群為安排以其語言所進行之節目所需要的設備,只要其能夠支持族群之保存。如此規定亦適用於電視節目之製作上。

第二十九條

少數族群(少數語言族群)成員有權依其族群傳統的文字格式與文體使用其教名與家姓。官方記錄與文件應以上述語言保存,並且得應其要求而改變。如此的服務不應予以課稅。

第三十條

少數族群進取公職的機會與多數少數族群相同。所有的公家機構,若其管轄權範圍包含本草案所提及之少數少數族群或其部分成員所居住的地區,其公職必須由該少數族群之成員擔任,以確保其能夠支持對於少數族群的保護政策。在每一個服務層級當中,擔任此類公職人員的數量應符合該公家機構管轄範圍內之少數族群相對於其他多數少數族群的人口比例。而在對於少數族群之保存與進步具有重大意義的任務上,該公職人員必須表現其挺身支持的態度,才足以獲得信賴。

 

Draft Protocol to the International Convention on the Protection of National or Ethnic Minorities or Groups, Applicable to the States Members of the Council of Europe
Draft prepared by the Internationales Institut für Nationalitätenrecht und Regionalismus. Reprinted from Chaszar, Edward (1988), The International Problem of National Minorities, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, at pp. 135-143.

Article 11

The scope and extent of the competences to be attributed to organs of territorial autonomy shall be fixed by law in accordance with the legitimate representatives of the ethnic group. The autonomous organs shall be granted at least comprehensive competences of a cultural nature (cultural autonomy) as well as rights of decision in questions of basic social and economic policy.

Article 14

The scope and extent of competences which are attributed to the organs of an autonomous corporate entity shall be fixed by law and in accordance with the legitimate representatives of the ethnic group. The law must prescribe the internal structure of the entity and shall envisage the cultural development and the respect for linguistic rights of the ethnic group.

Article 15

In ethnic regions vested with territorial autonomy, the ethnic group's language is the official language of the administration - including mail service, railway service, public hospitals, supply institutions and public social assurances - and in courts of justice )in higher instances only if a party to a lawsuit has residence in the autonomous region; in case of juridical persons, if it has its seat in the autonomous region). The language used for internal purposes by the administration and the courts of justice shall be the language of the ethnic group in cases where the administrative organs and tribunals are competent for single communes or are established on the commune level (including organs of arbitration). 

Article 16

The ethnic group's language shall be the official language if in an autonomous corporate entity within a commune (including parts of the commune or factions of a commune equipped with independent sub-organs of the commune) at least 20 %, in administrative and judicial districts at least 6 %, or in larger administrative entities at least 5 % of the residing population use the language of the ethnic group.

Article 17

In ethnic groups region vested with territorial autonomy, topographic inscriptions shall be in the language of the ethnic group. In territories vested with corporate autonomy, topographic inscriptions shall be bilingual but in any case equal to the official language with regard to type, size and arrangement of the written text. In both cases printed forms must also be available in the language of the ethnic or linguistic minority. Topographic inscriptions include all sign boards, the inscriptions and designations of offices, schools, railway stations, post offices, police stations, public hospitals, social assurances and inscriptions in public maps. On traffic sign boards the names of domestic communes located in an other language area are to appear only in the language of the other area.

Article 18

The respective standard language is considered as "language of the ethnic group". The use of a dialect may be permitted orally in dealings with public offices, if all parties immediately concerned have a command of that dialect.

Article 19

Kindergartens and preschool institutions are to be established for all children of members of ethnic groups requiring a preschool education provided that a sufficient number of children have applied for it. A decision as to the existence of these conditions shall be made in a generous and accommodating manner. The language of instruction and care of the children shall be the language of the ethnic group; Article 18 applies.

Article 20

Ethnic groups are entitled to the establishment and maintenance of a sufficient number of elementary schools to be located in their area of settlement in compliance with compulsory education, and with the ethnic group's language as language of instruction. Linguistic minorities (groups of citizens, irrespective of any profession under Article 9, of a mother tongue other than that of the majority of the population of the state) have the same right for their hereditary linguistic regions. The official language is a compulsory subject of instruction for all elementary grades in so far as the autonomous authorities have so ordered. In elementary schools for linguistic minorities the official language is to be taught in any case. 

Article 21

Should parents or other persons responsible for children or pupils at higher educational institutions (including professional and/or other institutions of higher learning) wish, or should the ethnic group or an autonomous inspectorate of education (in case such an inspectorate is established - Article 25) so demand, such schools are to be instituted; school curricula shall provide for the language of the ethnic group as subject of instruction where a sufficient number of pupils have applied for it. A decision as to the existence of these conditions shall be made in a generous and accommodating manner. 

Article 22

Ethnic groups are entitled to the establishment of public universities or similar educational institutions whenever in the first semester a sufficient number of members of the ethnic group have applied for enrolment in each of the main curricula. A decision as to the existence of these conditions shall be made in a generous and accommodating manner.

Article 23

On all levels of elementary and higher schools of the ethnic group or a linguistic minority it must be provided that the culture, the history, the social and economic structure of the ethnic group or the linguistic minority be a subject of the school curricula; the lessons are to be held in the language of the respective minority or group.

Article 24

Ethnic groups are permitted autonomously to establish educational institutions and schools of the kind mentioned in Articles 19-22 in accordance to national legislation on education. In such cases the ethnic groups are responsible for the material and personnel expenditures of these institutions. If they are unable to meet the expenses, the state (or, if educational matters fall within the competence of parts of federal states, the relevant part of a federal state) is responsible for covering the costs.

Article 25

Particular inspectorates of education shall be established for educational institutions and schools of ethnic groups and linguistic minorities. The civil servants of those entities must command the language of the ethnic group or of the linguistic minority as well as the official language.

Article 28

If an ethnic group does not possess its own radio or television installations and cannot possess such installations due to a lack of financial means, the group has a right to adequate transmission time with the radio of public or publicly concessioned radio installations during suitable hours. A decision as to what has to be considered "adequate" and "suitable" shall be made in a generous and accommodating manner. Radio and television programmes intended for ethnic groups are to be prepared by members of the ethnic groups standing for the support of the preservation of the ethnic group. Ethnic groups may not be burdened with the costs of these programmes except for the usual broadcasting taxes. Should only private broadcasting corporations exist in the given state, that state (or part of a federal state) must provide the ethnic group with the means of arranging for programmes in their own language, composed by their own members in so far as they stand for the support of the preservation of the ethnic group. These provisions apply also to television services. 

Article 29

Members of ethnic groups (linguistic minorities) have the right to use their Christian and family names in the wording and style corresponding to the tradition of the ethnic group (linguistic minority). Official registers and documents are to be kept in the above mentioned language and are to be altered accordingly if so demanded. Special taxes may not be imposed for this service.

Article 30

Access to all public offices and posts is to be granted to members of ethnic groups in the same manner as it is granted to members of the majority population. At all public offices whose competence comprises territories in which ethnic groups or parts of such groups in the sense of this Protocol reside, public servants must be appointed who belong to the relevant ethnic group and guarantee the support of the preservation of the ethnic group. The number of these public servants must correspond, within each type of service rank, to the percentage which is equal to that part of the ethnic group in relation to the whole population residing in this territory for which the relevant authority is competent. Public servants may only be entrusted with tasks which are of particular importance for the preservation and advancement of an ethnic group in case such public servants stand for the support of the preservation of the ethnic group. 


基努那 (Kiruna) 人權宣言
原住民族世界理事會,瑞典、基努那,1977年9月27日。

第二條

因此,我們希望澄清我們因原住民身份所擁有不能變更的以及其與生俱來的權利是:

第二項
自由保存文化、語言與傳統的權利。
第十四項
接受我們文化以及傳統相關的適當教育權,排除任何外在因素,並在教育體制下,在所有教育層級承認我們文化的價值及我們語言的官方地位。

Kiruna Declaration on Human Rights
World Council of Indigenous Peoples, Kiruna, Sweden, 27 September 1977.

Article 2

We, therefore, wish to make clear those irrevocable and inborn rights which are due to us in our capacity as Aboriginals: 

2. Right to maintain our culture, language and traditions in freedom;... 

14. Right to an appropriate education in accordance with our culture and out traditions, without any foreign elements and within the framework of an educational system which recognises the values of our culture and acknowledges an official status to our language at all educational levels.


太平洋人權憲章
由LAWASTIA主辦,來自密克羅西尼亞、波里尼西亞、美拉尼西亞、澳大利亞以及紐西蘭大約20個代表團審查由專家撰寫的一份報告以及1989年5月15-17日在阿比亞、西薩摩亞所簽署的憲章提綱。下列選錄的是從《LAWASIA所贊助的太平洋人權憲章題綱報告》(1992) 22維多利亞大學威靈頓法律評論99。憲章的全文也可以在「亞太人權文件及資源」,Fernand de Varennes (ed.),卷1,Kluwer Law International, The Hague, 1998。

第二條

人人都享有本憲章所承認及保障之權利和自由,不因種族、族群、膚色、性別、語言、宗教、政治或其他的主張、民族和社會出身、經濟地位、出身或其他地位而有所差別。

第七A條

第二項
任何因犯罪被控訴者,都享有下列的權利。
第八款
被控訴期間,假如被指控者不懂或不會說法院的語言,有權利要求免費口譯及筆譯協助,

第十四A條

在存有少數族群或少數宗教之締約國,該少數者的權利不應被否認,在社會中與其他族群同樣享有保存他們自己文化、宣揚與實踐他們自己的宗教信仰或使用他們自己語言的權利。

Pacific Charter of Human Rights
Under the auspices of LAWASIA, some 20 delegates from Micronesia, Polynesia, Melanesia, Australia and New Zealand examined a report of experts and subsequently arrived with the following proposed charter which was adopted in Apia, Western Samoa, 15-17 May 1989. The following extracts are reprinted from "Report on a proposed Pacific Charter of Human Rights prepared under the auspices of LAWASIA", (1992) 22 Victoria University of Wellington Law Review 99. The full text of the Charter can also be found in "Asia-Pacific Human Rights Documents and Resources", Fernand de Varennes (Ed.), Volume 1, Kluwer Law International, The Hague, 1998.

Article 2

Every individual shall be entitled to the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms recognised and guaranteed in the present Charter without distinction of any kind such as race, ethnic group, colour, sex, language, religion, political or any other opinion, national and social origin, economic status, birth or other status.

Article 7A

(2) Every person who is charged with a criminal offence has the right: 

(h) to have the free assistance of an interpreter if the person cannot understand or speak the language used in court;

Article 14A

In those Parties in which ethnic, religious or minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practice their own religion, or to use their own language.


亞太人權教育研習會宣言
本宣言於1996年8月26日由澳洲、孟加拉、緬甸、東蒂汶、香港、印度、印尼、尼泊爾、巴基斯坦、菲律賓、巴布亞紐幾內亞、斯里蘭卡泰國等國家人權教育專家及人權教育組織於澳洲雪黎的研習會中決議而成。

亞太人權教育研習會與會者同意遵循及行使下列規章與任務:

二十八、亞太人權教育計畫。
研習會讚賞人權教育計畫出色的成果以及其在亞太地區的創舉。然而,強化人權教育的內容是刻不容緩的,在區域、國家以及本土的層級之發展亦然。未來十年,更必須致力於加強人權教育計畫的內容,以提供大眾所需之形式和語文譯本的基本人權文件。

Statement of Workshop on Asia-Pacific Human Rights Education
Statement issued on 26 August 1996, Sydney, Australia, at workshop attended by human rights educators and representatives of human rights organisations in Australia, Bangladesh, Burma, East Timor, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

The participants at the Workshop of Asia-Pacific Human Rights Educators agreed upon the following principles and tasks:

28. Human rights education programs. The Workshop applauds the efforts of human rights education programs and initiatives in the Asia-Pacific region. However, there is an urgent need to strengthen existing capacities for human rights education, as well as to develop new capacities, at regional, national and local levels. During the Decade, there must be coordinated efforts to enhance the capacity of human rights education programs for: 
provision of public access to primary human rights documentation in relevant forms and languages;


世界語言權宣言
本宣言之成立是由數個組織「國際筆會的翻譯及語言權委員會和艾斯卡雷國際少數民族中心」委託五十位專家所組成之協會的努力成果,並且終於在1996年6月6日於西班牙巴塞隆納經來自九十個不同國家、數百個非政府組織及國際筆會中心的二百二十位代表共同認可。本宣言同時可在艾斯卡雷國際少數族群中心的網站上找到西班牙語、法語和加泰隆尼亞語的版本。

前言

各國際協會與非政府組織,當前『世界語言權宣言』的簽署者,於1996年6月6日至9日在西班牙巴塞隆納集會。

有鑑於1948年『世界人權宣言』之前言中所宣示的「對於基本人權、人格尊嚴與價值、以及男女平等權利之信念」,以及其在第二條中所確立的「人人皆得享受本宣言所載之一切權利與自由,不分種族、膚色、性別、語言、宗教、政治或其他主張、民族或社會出身、財產、出身或其他身份」; 

有鑑於1966年12月16日聯合國大會通過之『公民權利及政治權利國際公約』(第二十七條)和『經濟、社會、文化權利國際公約』於其前言中宣示,唯有在創造了使人可以享有其公民和政治權利,以及其經濟、社會與文化權利之條件的情況下,才能使其獲得自由;

有鑑於聯合國組織大會於1992年12月18日所通過之47/135號決議案採行了『隸屬少數民族或宗教及少數語言族群之權利宣言』;

有鑑於歐洲會議所通過的宣言及條約,諸如1950年11月4日簽署之『歐洲保護人權和基本自由公約』(第十四條)、1992年6月29日『歐洲大會部長會議公約』所通過之『歐洲區域語言或少數族群語言憲章』、1993年10月9日歐洲大會領袖高峰會所通過的『少數族群宣言』以及1994年11月之『保護少數族群之架構協定』;

有鑑於國際筆會之『聖地牙哥德康波斯特拉宣言』,以及國際筆會的翻譯及語言權委員會於1993年12月15日所通過的宣言,提議成立「世界語言權會議」;

顧及到國際文化交流發展聯盟於1987年10月9日在巴西勒西菲舉行之第十二屆研討會中,建議聯合國組織採取必要措施以通過並實行『世界語言權宣言』;

有鑑於國際勞工組織於1989年6月26日通過有關獨立國家中的原住民族及部落民族之169號條款;

有鑑於1990年5月巴塞隆納之『世界集體人權宣言』中宣示,人人均有權表達並發展自己的文化、語言與組織法規,最終甚至可以在相異的政治架構中採行屬於他們自己的政治、教育、溝通管道和政府結構;

有鑑於國際現代語教師聯盟大會於1991年8月16日在佩斯(匈牙利)的『最後宣言』中建議,語言權應被視為個人基本自由權利之一;

有鑑於1994年4月20日聯合國經濟社會委員會人權委員會所提出之關於『原住民族權利宣言』草案的報告中,根據集體權利來評估個人權利;

有鑑於在1995年9月18日第1278會議中通過的『美洲人權委員會原住民族權利宣言』草案;

顧及到世界上大多數瀕臨滅絕的語言是屬於無主權的民族,以及阻礙這些語言發展並加速其遭到替代的主要因素,乃是缺乏自己的政府並且受到國家強制推行其政治、行政結構和語言政策的結果;

顧及到侵略、殖民、佔領和其他政治、經濟或社會之從屬地位的例子均涉及直接、強制地推行外來語言的行為,或者至少是扭曲使用者對其語言的認知,並且製造語言的階級觀以減低他們對其原來語言的忠誠度;同時顧及到有些民族的語言在獲得統治權後,因為原先存在之對殖民或帝國主義語言有利的政策,將陷入遭到替代的過程;

顧及到普遍性必須以語言及文化多樣性的概念為根據,勝過同質化的潮流以及排他性的隔絕;

顧及到為了確保各種語言社群間的和平相處,必須建立一系列、全面性的原則以保證對所有語言的提倡與尊重,以及它們在公開與私下場合之交誼性使用;

顧及到多種語言學本質以外的其他因素(如:歷史、政治、地域、人口統計、經濟、社會結構和社會語言學、以及其他與群體態度相關的因素)將導致多種語言的滅絕、邊緣化與退化等問題,因此必須以全方位的角度檢視語言權,如此才能針對每一個案提供適切的解答;

相信『世界語言權宣言』的必要性在於矯正語言不均衡的情形,它將確保所有語言得到充分的發展和尊重,並且將建立正義公平的語言原則作為維持和諧社會關係的關鍵要素;

因此宣稱

序言

依前述之考量,每一種語言的情況均是諸多政治、法律、意識型態和歷史、人口統計數字和地域、經濟和社會、文化、語言和社會語言學、以及語言間和主觀本質等,各種因素幅輳與交互作用的結果。

更確切地說,目前這些因素可被定義為:

1.長久以來大多數國家追求單一化的趨勢,以致於將削減差異性並採取反對多元文化和語言的態度。
2.世界經濟潮流所導致的全球資訊、溝通和文化市場,阻斷了相互關係的幅員以及為確保語言共同體內在同質性的互動形式。
3.一種由跨國經濟團體以自由為名,確認解除對講求進步與競爭之個體主義的限制,同時卻衍生出嚴重且持續增加中之經濟、社會、文化和語言不平等的經濟學成長模式。

語言社群目前正處於因缺乏自治政府、人口稀少或是部分或全體族人遭到驅散、經濟力量微薄、語言無法化成具體文字、或文化模式與統治者相衝突的壓力之下,因此,除非以下基本條件能夠受到重視,否則將有許多語言無法再繼續存在和發展:

在政治方面,目標為構想一個能夠組織語言多樣性的方式,讓眾多語言社群能夠有效參與此一新發展模式。

在文化方面,目標為在發展過程中提供一個世界性的、使所有種族、語言社群和個人均能公平參與的溝通場所。

在經濟方面,目標為促進基於所有人參與、以及對社會生態平衡和所有語言與文化間平等關係之尊重的持續發展。

為此,本宣言以語言社群而非國家為其出發點,並且在實際內容上也將被視為對有能力確保全人類持續且平等進步之國際組織的強化。同時為了這些理由,它鼓勵創造基於尊重、和諧共存與相互信任之語言多樣性的政治架構。

概念

第一條

第一項
本宣言認為符合以下條件者得被視為一語言社群:任何曾於一特定區域奠基之人類社會,不論此地域是否被承認,其認定自己為一支族群,並且已發展出共通語言作為溝通、凝聚成員之自然工具者。
第二項
本宣言以語言權同時屬於個人與全體作為其出發原則。於界定語言權範圍時,它採用歷史語言社群所存在之地域為指涉對象,不僅只限於其所被認定之生活區域,同時還包括與此語言之發展密切相關的社會性與功能性空間。唯有在此基礎上,才能解釋本條第五點所提之語言團體的權利,也才能依語言權利之進展與連續性來解釋那些居住在其語言社群外之個人的權利。
第三項
因本宣言之故,於下列情況,團體將被視為在其區域內且屬於一特定語言社群:

第一款
當它們因為政治或行政邊界而與其主要社群相分離;
第二款
當它們被認定屬於一個被其他語言社群所包圍的小區域;
第三款
當它們被認定與其他擁有相似起源之語言社群同屬一區。

第四項
本宣言同時顧及長期在同一地區遷移的游牧民族以及散居的民族為其領域中的語言族群。
第五項
本宣言將居住在與其語言相異、且擁有相異歷史起源之區域中的語言團體視為一語言社群。此類語言團體包括移民、難民、遭到驅逐出境的以及離散者。

第二條

第一項
本宣言顧及,當眾多語言社群與團體居住於同一地域,本宣言所陳述之各項權利的行使必須立基於相互之尊重與所能保證之最大程度的民主。
第二項
為建立此類語言社群、團體與其成員間個別權利之適當的表達方式,追求令人滿意的社會語言學平衡,除了他們本身地域、歷史淵源和其以民主方式所表達的意見之外,尚須考慮多項因素。這些因素也許需要補償性的矯正以恢復平衡,其中移民者強制性的本質將導致相異社群與團體共存的情況,以及他們在政治、社會經濟和文化上不同的弱勢程度。

第三條

第一項
本宣言認為下列個人權利不容割讓,並得以於任何情況中使用:

以及所有1966年12月16日之『公民權利和政治權利國際公約』和同日簽署之『經濟、社會、文化權利國際公約』當中所承認之各項有關語言的權利。

第二項
本宣言認為語言團體之集體權利,除前述之語言團體成員的權利以外,尚包含以下項目,符合第二條第二款之情況:

第三項
前述之個人和語言團體的權利不得阻礙這些人或團體與其所居住地區之語言社群間的關係,亦不得阻礙他們融入其中。

第四條

第一項
本宣言認為遷移並定居於另一語言社群領域之人民有權亦有責任保持融入此社群的態度。本條款旨在表現這些人的另一種社會化過程;他們將保有原來文化的特性,並將它與其已確立足夠之法規常識、價值與生活型態之社會分享;在這個社會中,他已經能毫無困難地展現其社會功能,與原屬於此社群之成員無異。

第二項
在另一方面,本宣言認為同化作用,一種與所寄宿之社會的文化交流,將使原來的文化特性遭到寄宿社會之法規常識、價值與生活型態所取代,因此不得被強制或引誘執行,而只能完全是自由決定的結果。

第五條

本宣言所立基之原則認為,所有語言社群,無論其法律地位為官方、地區或少數族群語言,均是平等且獨立的。本宣言不使用地區性或少數族群語言等名詞,即使在某些情況下承認其為地區性或少數族群語言的地位將可便利他們行使某些權利,但這些或其他修正法卻經常被用來限制語言社群的權利。

第六條

本宣言認為,國家規定的官方語言、或因為行政目的或特定文化活動長期在某區域使用的語言,不足以被認定為是只通行於此特定區域的語言。

第一部份 普遍原則

第七條

第一項
所有語言都是集體認同以及對事實之認知與敘述的表現,因此必須在各種機能上享有為了發展所需之條件。
第二項
所有語言均是由集體所構成,並且於社群中作為個體凝聚、鑑定、溝通與創造性表達的工具。

第八條

第一項
所有語言社群均有權組織及管理屬於自己的資源,並且確保他們的語言能在社會各種機能中使用。
第二項
所有語言社群均有資格支配為確保其語言之傳遞與存續所必須之方法。

第九條

所有語言社群有權在不受引誘或武力介入的情況下,編纂、標準化、保存、發展以及提倡他們的語言系統。

第十條

第一項
所有語言社群均有平等的權利。
第二項
本宣言不容許對語言社群的歧視,無論其政治權主宰之程度,其社會經濟或其他狀態,其語言文字化、更新或標準化的程度,或其他標準。
第三項
必須採行所有步驟以實行此平等原則,使其有效且真實。

第十一條

為保證本宣言所明列之各項權利的行使,所有語言社群均有資格支配翻譯成、或者翻譯自其他語言的工具。

第十二條

第一項
人人均有權以其語言於公開場合進行各項活動,只要這項語言是只通行於其居住區域之特定語言。
第二項
人人均有權於私人場所或家庭中使用自己的語言。

第十三條

第一項
人人均有權瞭解只通行於其居住區域內的語言。
第二項
人人均有權通曉各種語言,亦有權瞭解和使用對其本身發展或社會行動力最具傳導性的語言,不受本宣言所確立、對只通行於特定區域之語言的公開使用的保證所拘束。

第十四條

本宣言的各項條款不得被解釋或使用,以傷害任何對只通行於特定區域之語言較有利之國內或國際狀態的規範或實踐。

第二部分 全面性語言制度

壹、公共行政組織與官方機構

第十五條

第一項
所有語言社群均有資格在其地區內以其語言作為官方用途。
第二項
所有語言社群均有權要求以其語言所進行之法律和行政行為、所書寫之公開或私人的文件、以及官方記錄必須具有拘束力和效力,無人得以藉口忽略此種語言。

第十六條

所有語言社群均有權以其語言與政府當局、和包含此特定語言通行區域之行政部門的中央、區域、地方及超區域部門溝通。

第十七條

第一項
所有語言社群均有資格以其語言支配並擁有所有關於將影響其特定語言通行區域關係之官方文件,無論其為印刷、可用機器判讀或任何其他形式。
第二項
表格或標準行政文件,無論其為印刷、可用機器判讀或任何其他形式,均必須是可以被取得的,並且交由部門涵蓋所有特定語言通行區域的政府當局來支配。

第十八條

第一項
所有語言社群均有權要求以通行於該區域之特定語言出版所有與其相關的律法和其他法規條文。
第二項
在其司法範圍內擁有超過一種歷史性區域語言的政府當局,必須出版所有語言版本的律法和其他法規條文,不論其使用者是否瞭解他種語言。

第十九條

第一項
代表大會必須以其代表區域之傳統語言為其官方用語。
第二項
此權利同時適用於第一條第四項所提及之散居民族的語言。

第二十條

第一項
人人均有權以口語或書寫的方式在法庭中使用長久以來於此區域內被使用的語言。法庭必須在內部決議中使用此特定語言,並且當此訴訟案在國家法律制度的考量下需於其他地區繼續舉行時,仍必須維持使用原來的語言。
第二項
儘管如此,每個人仍有權以其通曉的語言接受審判,並獲得免費的翻譯協助。

第二十一條

所有語言社群均有權要求以只通行於該區域之特定語言建立官方記錄。

第二十二條

所有語言社群均有權要求以公證人或政府官員服務之區域的特定語言來書寫經公證生效、或其他經授權之政府官員所認可的文件。

貳、教育

第二十三條

第一項
教育必須幫助增進語言社群在其所被提供之區域內表達自己語言和文化的能力。
第二項
教育必須幫助語言社群在其所被提供之區域內維持及發展他們的語言。
第三項
教育必須永遠協助發展語言和文化多樣性、以及相異語言社群間的和諧關係。
第四項
根據上述原則,人人均有權學習任何語言。

第二十四條

所有語言社群均有權決定其語言被表現的程度:在其領域內各階段教育上作為媒介語言和被研究的對象,包括學前、初級、次級技術和職業性、大學和成人教育。

第二十五條

所有語言社群均有資格支配所有人類及物質資源,以確保他們的語言在其領域內各階段的教育上能擴展至所希望的程度:受過適當訓練的教師、合宜的教學方式、教科書、金融、建築物與設備、傳統與創新科技。

第二十六條

所有語言社群均有資格教育其成員,使其能在日常各種領域上完全運用自己的語言,甚至可以延伸至學習其餘他們所希望瞭解的語言。

第二十七條

所有語言社群均有資格教育其成員,使其能獲得與其文化傳統相關之語言的知識,例如曾為其社區慣常用語的文學或聖言。

第二十八條

所所有語言社群均有資格教育其成員,使他們能徹底瞭解其文化傳統(歷史、地理、文學和其他文化表徵),甚至可以延伸至學習其餘他們所希望瞭解之文化。

第二十九條

第一項
人人均有資格以其所居住區域之特定通行語言接受教育。
第二項
本權利並不排斥獲得其他語言之口語或書寫知識的權利,如此將可作為他/她與其他語言社群溝通的工具。

第三十條

所有語言社群的語言和文化必須在大學階段作為研讀和探究的主題。

參、合宜的姓名

第三十一條

所有語言社群均有權在所有範疇與所有場合中保存並使用其合宜的姓名系統。

第三十二條

第一項
所有語言社群均有權以其區域專屬語言使用地名,無論是在口語或書寫上、在私下、公開或是官方場所。
第二項
所有語言社群均有權建立、保存、及修改其原始地名。這些地名不得被武斷地廢除、扭曲或改寫,亦不得因為政治或其他情況之改變而遭到替換。

第三十三條

所有語言社群均有權以自己的語言稱呼自己。任何姓名的翻譯必須避免發生模糊或輕蔑的情況。

第三十四條

人人均有權以其語言在所有場合中使用自己的姓名,同時亦有權,在必要的情況下,以最接近其姓名發音的方式將其轉化為文字。

肆、傳播媒體與新技術

第三十五條

所有語言社群均有權決定其語言在境內傳播媒體上所表現的程度,無論其為當地或傳統的媒體,無論其具有廣大的影響範圍或使用較先進的技術,亦無論其散佈或傳播的方式。

第三十六條

所有語言社群均有資格支配所有人類及物質資源,以確保他們的語言和文化的自我表現能在其領域內的傳播媒體上擴展至所希望的程度:受過適當訓練的人員、金融、建築物與設備、傳統與創新科技。

第三十七條

所有語言社群均有權透過傳播媒體接受有關他們文化遺產的全面性知識(如:歷史、地理、文學和其他文化表徵),甚至可以延伸至其餘他們所希望瞭解之文化的知識。

第三十八條

所有語言社群的語言和文化在世界各傳播媒體上必須受到平等、非歧視的對待。

第三十九條

本宣言第一條、第三、四段所描述的社群以及同一條第五段所描述的團體,均有資格在傳播媒體上獲得代表其所定居或移居之地區語言的平等權利。此項權利之行使不得破壞本地區其他語言團體或社群之間的和諧。

第四十條

在資訊技術的領域上,所有語言社群均有資格支配適用於其語言系統的設備,與其語言的工具和產物,以便獲得將這些技術運用於出版、翻譯、資訊處理以及普遍性之文化傳播上。

伍、文化

第四十一條

第一項
所有語言社群均有權以各種文化表達方式使用、維持、與促進其語言發展。
第二項
所有語言社群必須有完全行使這項權利的能力,不論其是否處在外來語言所統治的領域之中。

第四十二條

所有語言社群均有權於其文化領域中獲得完全的發展。

第四十三條

所有語言社群均有資格獲得其語言所產生的工作。

第四十四條

所有語言社群均有資格透過適當的資訊傳播獲得文化間活動的消息,以及獲得各種活動上的支援,諸如教導外國人語言、翻譯、配音、後製同步教準、和字幕說明。

第四十五條

所有語言社群均有權為其區域專屬語言在文化事件或設施上佔據一個顯著位置(如:圖書館、錄影帶、電影院、劇院、博物館、檔案、民謠、文化產業以及其他文化生活的表徵)。

第四十六條

所有語言社群均有權保存其語言和宗教遺產,包括其物質表徵,諸如收集以其語文所寫成之文件、藝術作品與建築物、歷史遺跡和銘刻。

陸、社會經濟領域

第四十七條

第一項
所有語言社群均有權在其領域內的所有社會經濟活動中,確立其語言的使用。
第二項
所有語言社群均有資格以其語言支配所有為表現其專業活動所必須之物件,諸如參考文件或作品、指示、表格與電腦設備、工具與產物。
第三項
唯有當相關專業活動證明為必要時,始得於此領域中使用他種語言。不論任何情況,新進語言不得貶低或取代區域特定語言之使用。

第四十八條

第一項
所有語言社群均有權在完全合法的情況下,於所有經濟互動型態中使用他們的語言,諸如買賣貨物及服務、銀行業務、保險、職務契約或其他項目。
第二項
於這類私人行為中,沒有任何條款可以排除或限制區域專屬語言的使用。
第三項
所有語言社群均有資格以其語言擁有並且支配為表現上述行為所必須之文件。此類文件包括表格、支票、契約、發票、收據、交付契據之紀錄、訂單以及其他項目。

第四十九條

所有語言社群均有權在各類社會經濟組織中使用其語言,諸如勞工和工會組織、以及員工、專業人員、貿易與同業協會。

第五十條

第一項
所有語言社群均有權為其語言在廣告、標誌、路標或其他構成國家形象之元素上佔據一個顯著位置。
第二項
所有語言社群均有權接受其境內廣告業者完全以其語言口述或書寫的商品或服務訊息,諸如使用方式、標籤、成分表、廣告、保證書或其他項目。
第三項
所有關係到公眾安全的公開標誌及宣言必須至少以通行於該區域之特定語言書寫,並且至少應與其他語言所寫成之標語同等明顯。

第五十一條

第一項
人人均有權在其與公司、商業團體和私人機構的關係上使用通行於該區域之特定語言,並且應當受到以其語言所表現之服務或回應。
第二項
作為委託者、顧客、消費者或使用者,人人均有權從公立機構中接受以通行於該區域之特定語言口述或書寫的資訊。

第五十二條

人人均有權以通行於該區域之特定語言進行專業活動,除非因其職務之功能性需要必須使用他種語言,諸如語言教師、翻譯者或導遊。

附加決定

第一
各政府當局必須在其司法制度領域內,採取所有適當措施以履行本宣言所聲明之各項權利。特別是,必須設立國際基金以促進明顯缺乏資源之社群中語言權的使用。因此各政府當局必須提供必要援助以使眾多社群之語言得以被編纂、複寫、教授並且在政府機構當中使用。

第二
各政府當局必須確保各相關政府單位、組織及人員均能熟悉本宣言所揭示之各項權利與其相對應的責任。

第三
各政府當局必須根據既存之法律規定,確立違反此宣言當中規範之語言權時所應負的刑責。

最後決定

第一
本宣言提議於聯合國組織中成立語言議會。聯合國大會應負責促成此議會成立、界定其功能、指派其成員,並且在國際法中創立一法人團體以確保語言社群能夠行使本宣言所認可之各項權利。

第二
本宣言建議並提倡成立世界語言權紀律委員會作為一非官方諮詢機構,由非政府組織及研究語言法之組織的代表組成。

Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights
This declaration is the result of efforts of a number of organizations (the International PEN Club's Translations and Linguistic Rights Committee and the Escarré International Centre for Ethnic Minorities and Nations) which entrusted its preparation to a committee of fifty experts. It was finally approved on 6 June 1996 in Barcelona, Spain, by two hundred and twenty persons from almost ninety different states, representing some one hundred NGOs and International PEN Club Centres. The text of the Universal Declaration can also be found in Spanish, French and Catalan versions at the Internet site of the Centre Internacional Escarré per a les Minories Ètniques i Nacionals. 

PRELIMINARIES

The institutions and non-governmental organizations, signatories to the present Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights, meeting in Barcelona from 6 to 9 June 1996, 
Having regard to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights which, in its preamble, expresses its "faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women"; and which, in its second article, establishes that "everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms" regardless of "race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status"; 

Having regard to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 16 December 1966 (Article 27), and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of the same date which, in their preambles, state that human beings cannot be free unless conditions are created which enable them to enjoy both their civil and political rights and their economic, social and cultural rights; 

Having regard to Resolution 47/135 of 18 December 1992 of the General Assembly of the United Nations Organizations which adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Persons belonging to National, Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities; 

Having regard to the declarations and conventions of the Council of Europe, such as the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, of 4 November 1950 (Article 14); the Convention of the Council of Ministers of the Council of Europe, of 29 June 1992, approving the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages; the Declaration on National Minorities by the Summit Meeting of the Council of Europe on 9 October 1993; and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities of November 1994; 

Having regard to the Santiago de Compostela Declaration of the International PEN Club and the Declaration of 15 December 1993 of the Translations and Linguistic Rights Committee of the International PEN Club concerning the proposal to hold a World Conference on Linguistic Rights; 

Considering that, in the Recife, Brazil, Declaration of 9 October 1987, the 12th Seminar of the International Association for the Development of Intercultural Communication recommended the United Nations Organization to take the necessary steps to approve and implement a Universal Declaration on Linguistic Rights; 

Having regard to Convention 169 of the International Labour Organization of 26 June 1989 concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries; 

Having regard to the Universal Declaration of the Collective Rights of Peoples, Barcelona, May 1990, which declared that all peoples have the right to express and develop their culture, language and rules of organization and, to this end, to adopt political, educational, communications and governmental structures of their own, within different political frameworks; 

Having regard to the Final Declaration of the General Assembly of the International Federation of Modern Language Teachers in Pécs (Hungary) on 16 August 1991, which recommended that linguistic rights be considered among the fundamental rights of the individual; 

Having regard to the report of the Human Rights Commission of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, of 20 April 1994, concerning the draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which assesses individual rights in the light of collective rights; 

Having Regard to the draft Declaration of the Inter-American Human Rights Commission on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, approved at session 1278 on 18 September 1995; 
Considering that the majority of the world's endangered languages belong to non-sovereign peoples and that the main factors which prevent the development of these languages and accelerate the process of language substitution include the lack of self-government and the policy of states which impose their political and administrative structures and their language; 

Considering that invasion, colonization, occupation and other instances of political, economic or social subordination often involve the direct imposition of a foreign language or, at the very least, distort perceptions of the value of languages and give rise to hierarchical linguistic attitudes which undermine the language loyalty of speakers; and considering that the languages of some peoples which have attained sovereignty are immersed in a process of language substitution as a result of a policy which favours the language of a former colonial or imperial power; 

Considering that universalism must be based on a conception of linguistic and cultural diversity which prevails over trends towards homogenization and exclusionary isolation; 
Considering that, in order to ensure peaceful coexistence between language communities, a series of overall principles must be found so as to guarantee the promotion and respect of all languages and their social use in public and in private; 

Considering that various factors of an extralinguistic nature (historical, political, territorial, demographic, economic, sociocultural and sociolinguistic factors and those related to collective attitudes) give rise to problems which lead to the extinction, marginalization and degeneration of numerous languages, and that consequently linguistic rights must be examined in an overall perspective, so as to apply appropriate solutions in each case; 

In the belief that a Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights is required in order to correct linguistic imbalances with a view to ensuring the respect and full development of all languages and establishing the principles for a just and equitable linguistic peace throughout the world as a key factor in the maintenance of harmonious social relations; 

HEREBY DECLARE THAT 

PREAMBLE 

The situation of each language, in view of the foregoing considerations, is the result of the convergence and interaction of a wide range of factors of a political and legal, ideological and historical, demographic and territorial, economic and social, cultural, linguistic and sociolinguistic, interlinguistic and subjective nature. 

More specifically, at the present time, these factors are defined by: 

1.The age-old unifying tendency of the majority of states to reduce diversity and foster attitudes opposed to cultural plurality and linguistic pluralism. 
2.The trend towards a worldwide economy and consequently towards a worldwide market of information, communications and culture, which disrupts the spheres of interrelation and the forms of interaction that guarantee the internal cohesion of language communities. 
3.The economicist growth model put forward by transnational economic groups which seeks to identify deregulation with progress and competitive individualism with freedom and generates serious and growing economic, social, cultural and linguistic inequality. 

Language communities are currently under pressure from dangers arising from a lack of self-government, a limited population or one that is partially or wholly dispersed, a fragile economy, an uncodified language, or a cultural model opposed to the dominant one, which make it impossible for many languages to survive and develop unless the following basic goals are taken into account: 

In a political perspective, the goal of conceiving a way of organizing linguistic diversity so as to permit the effective participation of language communities in this new growth model. 

In a cultural perspective, the goal of rendering the worldwide communications space compatible with the equitable participation of all peoples, language communities and individuals in the development process. 

In an economic perspective, the goal of fostering sustainable development based on the participation of all and on respect for the ecological balance of societies and for equitable relationships between all languages and cultures. 

For all these reasons, this Declaration takes language communities and not states as its point of departure and is to be viewed in the context of the reinforcement of international institutions capable of guaranteeing sustainable and equitable development for the whole of humanity. For these reasons also it aims to encourage the creation of a political framework for linguistic diversity based upon respect, harmonious coexistence and mutual benefit. 

PRELIMINARY TITLE
Concepts

Article 1

1. This Declaration considers as a language community any human society established historically in a particular territorial space, whether this space be recognized or not, which identifies itself as a people and has developed a common language as a natural means of communication and cultural cohesion between its members. The term language specific to a territory refers to the language of the community historically established in such a space. 

2. This Declaration takes as its point of departure the principle that linguistic rights are individual and collective at one and the same time. In defining the full range of linguistic rights, it adopts as its referent the case of a historical language community within its own territorial space, this space being understood, not only as the geographical area where the community lives, but also as the social and functional space vital to the full development of the language. Only on this basis is it possible to define the rights of the language groups mentioned in point 5 of the present article, and those of individuals living outside the territory of their community, in terms of a gradation or continuum. 

3. For the purpose of this Declaration, groups are also deemed to be in their own territory and to belong to a language community in the following circumstances: 

i. when they are separated from the main body of their community by political or administrative boundaries; ii. when they have been historically established in a small area surrounded by members of other language communities; or iii. when they are established in an area which they share with the members of other language communities with similar historical antecedents. 

4. This Declaration also considers nomad peoples within their historical areas of migration and peoples historically established in geographically dispersed locations as language communities in their own territory. 

5. This Declaration considers as a language group any group of persons sharing the same language which is established in the territorial space of another language community but which does not possess historical antecedents equivalent to those of that community. Examples of such groups are immigrants, refugees, deported persons and members of diasporas. 

Article 2

1. This Declaration considers that, whenever various language communities and groups share the same territory, the rights formulated in this Declaration must be exercised on a basis of mutual respect and in such a way that democracy may be guaranteed to the greatest possible extent. 

2. In order to establish the appropriate articulation between the respective rights of such language communities and groups and the persons belonging to them, the quest for a satisfactory sociolinguistic balance must take into account various factors, in addition to their respective historical antecedents in the territory and their democratically expressed will. Among such factors, which may call for compensatory treatment aimed at restoring a balance, are the following: the coercive nature of the migrations which have led to the coexistence of the different communities and groups, and their degree of political, socioeconomic and cultural vulnerability.

Article 3

1. This Declaration considers the following to be inalienable personal rights which may be exercised in any situation: 

the right to be recognized as a member of a language community; 
the right to the use of one's own language both in private and in public; 
the right to the use of one's own name; 
the right to interrelate and associate with other members of one's language community of origin; 
the right to maintain and develop one's own culture; 

and all the other rights related to language which are recognized in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 16 December 1966 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of the same date. 

2. This Declaration considers that the collective rights of language groups, may include the following, in addition to the rights attributed to the members of language groups in the foregoing paragraph, and in accordance with the conditions laid down in article 2.2: 

the right for their own language and culture to be taught; 
the right of access to cultural services; 
the right to an equitable presence of their language and culture in the communications media; 
the right to receive attention in their own language from government bodies and in socioeconomic relations. 

3. The aforementioned rights of persons and language groups must in no way hinder the interrelation of such persons or groups with the host language community or their integration into that community. Nor must they restrict the rights of the host community or its members to the full public use of the community's own language throughout its territorial space. 

Article 4

1. This Declaration considers that persons who move to and settle in the territory of another language community have the right and the duty to maintain an attitude of integration towards this community. This term is understood to mean an additional socialization of such persons in such a way that they may preserve their original cultural characteristics while sharing with the society in which they have settled sufficient references, values and forms of behaviour to enable them to function socially without greater difficulties than those experienced by members of the host community. 

2. This Declaration considers, on the other hand, that assimilation, a term which is understood to mean acculturation in the host society, in such a way that the original cultural characteristics are replaced by the references, values and forms of behaviour of the host society, must on no account be forced or induced and can only be the result of an entirely free decision. 

Article 5

This Declaration is based on the principle that the rights of all language communities are equal and independent of their legal status as official, regional or minority languages. Terms such as regional or minority languages are not used in this Declaration because, though in certain cases the recognition of regional or minority languages can facilitate the exercise of certain rights, these and other modifiers are frequently used to restrict the rights of language communities. 

Article 6

This Declaration considers that a language cannot be considered specific to a territory merely on the grounds that it is the official language of the state or has been traditionally used within the territory for administrative purposes or for certain cultural activities.

TITLE ONE
General Principles

Article 7

1. All languages are the expression of a collective identity and of a distinct way of perceiving and describing reality and must therefore be able to enjoy the conditions required for their development in all functions. 

2. All languages are collectively constituted and are made available within a community for individual use as tools of cohesion, identification, communication and creative expression.

Article 8

1. All language communities have the right to organize and manage their own resources so as to ensure the use of their language in all functions within society. 

2. All language communities are entitled to have at their disposal whatever means are necessary to ensure the transmission and continuity of their language.

Article 9

All language communities have the right to codify, standardize, preserve, develop and promote their linguistic system, without induced or forced interference. 

Article 10

1. All language communities have equal rights. 

2. This Declaration considers discrimination against language communities to be inadmissible, whether it be based on their degree of political sovereignty, their situation defined in social, economic or other terms, the extent to which their languages have been codified, updated or modernized, or on any other criterion. 

3. All necessary steps must be taken in order to implement this principle of equality and to render it real and effective.

Article 11

All language communities are entitled to have at their disposal whatever means of translation into and from other languages are needed to guarantee the exercise of the rights contained in this Declaration.

Article 12

1. Everyone has the right to carry out all activities in the public sphere in his/her language, provided it is the language specific to the territory where s/he resides. 

2. Everyone has the right to use his/her language in the personal and family sphere. 

Article 13

1. Everyone has the right to know the language specific to the territory in which s/he lives. 

2. Everyone has the right to be polyglot and to know and use the language most conducive to his/her personal development or social mobility, without prejudice to the guarantees established in this Declaration for the public use of the language specific to the territory.

Article 14

The provisions of this Declaration cannot be interpreted or used to the detriment of any norm or practice deriving from the internal or international status of a language which is more favourable to its use within the territory to which it is specific.

SECOND TITLE
Overall linguistic régime

Section I
Public administration and official bodies

Article 15

1. All language communities are entitled to the official use of their language within their territory. 

2. All language communities have the right for legal and administrative acts, public and private documents and records in public registers which are drawn up in the language of the territory to be valid and effective and no one can allege ignorance of this language. 

Article 16

All language communities have the right to communicate in their own language with the central, territorial, local and supraterritorial services of the public authorities and of those administrative divisions which include the territory to which the language is specific.

Article 17

1. All language communities are entitled to have at their disposal and to obtain in their own language all official documents pertaining to relations which affect the territory to which the language is specific, whether such documents be in printed, machine-readable or any other form. 

2. Forms and standard administrative documents, whether in printed, machine-readable or any other form, must be made available and placed at the disposal of the public in all territorial languages by the public authorities through the services which cover the territories to which each language is specific. 

Article 18

1. All language communities have the right for laws and other legal provisions which concern them to be published in the language specific to the territory. 

2. Public authorities who have more than one territorially historic language within their jurisdiction must publish all laws and other legal provisions of a general nature in each of these languages, whether or not their speakers understand other languages.

Article 19

1. Representative Assemblies must have as their official language(s) the language(s) historically spoken in the territory they represent. 

2. This right also applies to the languages of the communities established in geographically dispersed locations referred to in Article 1, Paragraph 4.

Article 20

1. Everyone has the right to use the language historically spoken in a territory, both orally and in writing, in the Courts of Justice located within that territory. The Courts of Justice must use the language specific to the territory in their internal actions and, if on account of the legal system in force within the state, the proceedings continue elsewhere, the use of the original language must be maintained. 

2. Notwithstanding the above, everyone has the right to be tried in a language which s/he understands and can speak and to obtain the services of an interpreter free of charge.

Article 21

All language communities have the right for records in public registers to be drawn up in the language specific to the territory.

Article 22

All language communities have the right for documents authenticated by notaries public or certified by other authorized public servants to be drawn up in the language specific to the territory where the notary or other authorized public servant performs his/her functions.

Section II
Education

Article 23

1. Education must help to foster the capacity for linguistic and cultural self-expression of the language community of the territory where it is provided. 

2. Education must help to maintain and develop the language spoken by the language community of the territory where it is provided. 

3. Education must always be at the service of linguistic and cultural diversity and of harmonious relations between different language communities throughout the world. 

4. Within the context of the foregoing principles, everyone has the right to learn any language.

Article 24

All language communities have the right to decide to what extent their language is to be present, as a vehicular language and as an object of study, at all levels of education within their territory: preschool, primary, secondary, technical and vocational, university, and adult education.

Article 25

All language communities are entitled to have at their disposal all the human and material resources necessary to ensure that their language is present to the extent they desire at all levels of education within their territory: properly trained teachers, appropriate teaching methods, text books, finance, buildings and equipment, traditional and innovative technology. 

Article 26

All language communities are entitled to an education which will enable their members to acquire a full command of their own language, including the different abilities relating to all the usual spheres of use, as well as the most extensive possible command of any other language they may wish to know. 

Article 27

All language communities are entitled to an education which will enable their members to acquire knowledge of any languages related to their own cultural tradition, such as literary or sacred languages which were formerly habitual languages of the community.

Article 28

All language communities are entitled to an education which will enable their members to acquire a thorough knowledge of their cultural heritage (history, geography, literature, and other manifestations of their own culture), as well as the most extensive possible knowledge of any other culture they may wish to know

Article 29

1. Everyone is entitled to receive an education in the language specific to the territory where s/he resides. 

2. This right does not exclude the right to acquire oral and written knowledge of any language which may be of use to him/her as an instrument of communication with other language communities.

Article 30

The language and culture of all language communities must be the subject of study and research at university level.

Section III
Proper names

Article 31

All language communities have the right to preserve and use their own system of proper names in all spheres and on all occasions.

Article 32

1. All language communities have the right to use place names in the language specific to the territory, both orally and in writing, in the private, public and official spheres. 

2. All language communities have the right to establish, preserve and revise autochthonous place names. Such place names cannot be arbitrarily abolished, distorted or adapted, nor can they be replaced if changes in the political situation, or changes of any other type, occur.

Article 33

All language communities have the right to refer to themselves by the name used in their own language. Any translation into other languages must avoid ambiguous or pejorative denominations.

Article 34

Everyone has the right to the use of his/her own name in his/her own language in all spheres, as well as the right, only when necessary, to the most accurate possible phonetic transcription of his/her name in another writing system.

Section IV
Communications media and new technologies

Article 36

All language communities are entitled to have at their disposal all the human and material resources required in order to ensure the desired degree of presence of their language and the desired degree of cultural self-expression in the communications media in their territory: properly trained personnel, finance, buildings and equipment, traditional and innovative technology. 

Article 37

All language communities have the right to receive, through the communications media, a thorough knowledge of their cultural heritage (history, geography, literature and other manifestations of their own culture), as well as the greatest possible amount of information about any other culture their members may wish to know.

Article 38

The languages and cultures of all language communities must receive equitable and non-discriminatory treatment in the communications media throughout the world.

Article 39

The communities described in Article 1, paragraphs 3 and 4, of this Declaration, and the groups mentioned in paragraph 5 of the same article, are entitled to an equitable representation of their language in the communications media of the territory where they are established or where they migrate. This right is to be exercised in harmony with the rights of the other language groups or communities in the territory.

Article 40

In the field of information technology, all language communities are entitled to have at their disposal equipment adapted to their linguistic system and tools and products in their language, so as to derive full advantage from the potential offered by such technologies for publication, translation and information processing and for the dissemination of culture in general.

Section V
Culture

Article 41

1. All language communities have the right to use, maintain and foster their language in all forms of cultural expression. 

2. All language communities must be able to exercise this right to the full without any community's space being subjected to hegemonic occupation by a foreign culture.

Article 42

All language communities have the right to full development within their own cultural sphere.

Article 43

All language communities are entitled to access to the works produced in their language.

Article 44

All language communities are entitled to access to intercultural programmes through the dissemination of adequate information, and to support for activities such as teaching the language to foreigners, translation, dubbing, post-synchronization and subtitling.

Article 45

All language communities have the right for the language specific to the territory to occupy a pre-eminent position in cultural events and services (libraries, videothèques, cinemas, theatres, museums, archives, folklore, cultural industries, and all other manifestations of cultural life).

Article 46

All language communities have the right to preserve their linguistic and cultural heritage, including its material manifestations, such as collections of documents, works of art and architecture, historic monuments and inscriptions in their own language.

Section VI
The socioeconomic sphere

Article 47

1. All language communities have the right to establish the use of their language in all socioeconomic activities within their territory. 

2. All language communities are entitled to have at their disposal, in their own language, all the means necessary for the performance of their professional activities, such as documents and works of reference, instructions, forms and computer equipment, tools and products. 

3. The use of other languages in this sphere can only be required in so far as it is justified by the nature of the professional activity involved. In no case can a more recently arrived language relegate or supersede the use of the language specific to the territory.

Article 48

1. All language communities have the right to use their language with full legal validity in economic transactions of all types, such as the sale and purchase of goods and services, banking, insurance, job contracts and others. 

2. No clause in such private acts can exclude or restrict the use of a language in the territory to which it is specific. 

3. All language communities are entitled to have the documents required for the performance of the above-mentioned operations at their disposal in their own language. Such documents include forms, cheques, contracts, invoices, receipts, delivery notes, order forms, and others. 

Article 49

All language communities have the right to use their language in all types of socioeconomic organizations such as labour and union organizations, and employers', professional, trade and craft associations.

Article 50

1. All language communities have the right for their language to occupy a pre-eminent place in advertising, signs, external signposting, and all other elements that make up the image of the country. 

2. All language communities have the right to receive full oral and written information in their own language on the products and services proposed by commercial establishments in the territory, such as instructions for use, labels, lists of ingredients, advertising, guarantees and others. 

3. All public signs and announcements affecting the safety of the public must be written at least in the language specific to the territory, in conditions which are not inferior to those of any other language.

Article 51

1. Everyone has the right to use the language specific to the territory in his/her relations with firms, commercial establishments and private bodies and to be served or receive a reply in the same language. 

2. Everyone has the right, as a client, customer, consumer or user, to receive oral and written information in the language specific to the territory from establishments open to the public. 

Article 52

Everyone has the right to carry out his/her professional activities in the language specific to the territory unless the functions inherent to the job require the use of other languages, as in the case of language teachers, translators or tourist guides.

ADDITIONAL DISPOSITIONS

First

The public authorities must take all appropriate steps to implement the rights proclaimed in this Declaration within their respective areas of jurisdiction. More specifically, international funds must be set up to foster the exercise of linguistic rights in communities which are demonstrably lacking in resources. Thus the public authorities must provide the necessary support so that the languages of the various communities may be codified, transcribed, taught, and used in the administration.

Second

2. It is the duty of government, under a state of emergency validly declared, to take only such measures restrictive of human rights as are strictly required by the exigencies of the situation, so that no less stringent measures would suffice, and to enforce such measures without discrimination based on race, sex, language, religious belief, political conviction, economic or social status, or ethnic origin.

Third

The public authorities must establish, in the light of existing legislation, the sanctions arising from the violation of the linguistic rights laid down in this Declaration.

FINAL DISPOSITIONS

First

This Declaration proposes the creation of a Council of Languages within the United Nations Organization. The General Assembly of the United Nations Organization is to be responsible for setting up this Council, defining its functions and appointing its members, and for creating a body in international law to protect language communities in the exercise of the rights recognized in this Declaration.

Second

This Declaration recommends and promotes the creation of a World Commission on Linguistic Rights, a non-official, consultative body made up of representatives of non-governmental organizations and organizations working in the field of linguistic law.