◣Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of) 馬其頓
Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
Constitution as adopted on 17 November 1991.
(1) The Macedonian language, written using its Cyrillic alphabet, is the official language in the Republic of Macedonia.
(2) In the units of local self-government where the majority of the inhabitants belong to a nationality, in addition to the Macedonian language and Cyrillic alphabet, their language and alphabet are also in official use, in a manner determined by law.
(3) the units of local self-government where there is a considerable number of inhabitants belonging to a nationality, their language and alphabet are also in official use, in addition to the Macedonian language and Cyrillic alphabet, under conditions and in a manner determined by law.
(2) The Republic guarantees the protection of the ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity of the nationalities.
(4) Members of the nationalities have the right to instruction in their language in primary and secondary education, as determined by law. In schools where education is carried out in the language of a nationality, the Macedonian language is also studied.
(3) The restriction of freedoms and rights cannot discriminate on grounds of sex, race, color of skin, language, religion, national or social origin, property or social status.
馬拉加西語 (Malagasy) 為國家語言。
Constitution as adopted on 19 August 1992.
(5) Malagasy shall be the national language.
Constitution as adopted on 16 May 1994.
(1) Discrimination of persons in any form is prohibited and all persons are, under any law, guaranteed equal and effective protection against discrimination on grounds of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, nationality, ethnic or social origin, disability, property, birth or other status.
Every person shall have the right to use the language and to participate in the cultural life of his or her choice.
(1) Every person who is detained, including every sentenced prisoner, shall have the right-
(a) to be informed of the reason for his or her detention promptly, and in a language which he or she understands;
(2) Every person arrested for, or accused of, the alleged commission of an offence shall, in addition to the rights which he or she has as a detained person, have the right-
(a) promptly to be informed, in a language which he or she understands, that he or she has the right to remain silent and to be warned of the consequences of making any statement; (f) as an accused person, to a fair trial, which shall include the right-
(ix) to be tried in a language which he or she understands or, failing this, to have the proceedings interpreted to him or her, at the expense of the State, into a language which he or she understands;
(1) A person shall not be qualified to be nominated or elected as a member of the Parliament unless that person-
(b) is able to speak and to read the English language well enough to take an active part in the proceedings of Parliament; and
(5) The proceedings of Parliament shall be conducted in the English language and such other languages as each Chamber may prescribe in respect of its own proceedings.
(2) A person shall not be qualified to be appointed as a Minister or Deputy Minister unless that person-
(b) is able to speak and to read the English language; and
除第十八條規定者外，任何年滿十八歲或以上、且在獨立日 (Merdeka Day)前誕生者，若其滿意聯邦政府並符合以下條件，則其有資格向聯邦政府提出申請並登記成為公民：
除第十八條之規定外，任何常居在沙巴或沙勞越州，且在馬來西亞日(Malaysia Day) 時已年滿十八歲者，若其滿意聯邦政府，則其有資格在一九七一年九月前向聯邦政府提出申請並登記成為公民……
Constitution as adopted on 31 August 1957.
Subject to Article 18, any person of or over the age of eighteen years who was born in the Federation before Merdeka Day is entitled, upon making application to the Federal Government, to be registered as a citizen if he satisfies the Federal Government...
(d) that he has an elementary knowledge of the Malay language.
Subject to Article 18, any person over the age of eighteen years who is on Malaysia Day ordinarily resident in the State of Sabah or Sarawak is entitled, upon making application to the Federal Government before September 1971, to be registered as a citizen if he satisfies the Federal Government...
(d) except where the application is made before September 1965, and the applicant has attained the age of forty-five years at the date of the application, that he has a sufficient knowledge of the Malay language or the English language or, in the case of an applicant ordinarily resident in Sarawak, the Malay language, the English language or any native language in use in Sarawak.
1. Subject to clause 9, the Federal Government may, upon application by any person of or over the age of twenty-one years who is not a citizen, grant a certificate of naturalisation to that person if satisfied...
(ii) (c) that he has an adequate knowledge of the Malay language.
2. Subject to clause 9, the Federal Government may, in such special circumstances as it thinks fit, upon application made by any person of or over the age of twenty-one years who is not a citizen, grant a certificate of naturalisation to that person if satisfied...
(c) that he has an adequate knowledge of the Malay language.
1. The national language shall be the Malay language and shall be in such script as Parliament may by law provide, provided that:
(a) no person shall be prohibited or prevented from using, otherwise than for official purposes, or from teaching or learning any other language; and
(b) nothing in this clause shall prejudice the right of the Federal Government or of any State Government to preserve and sustain the use and study of the language of any other community in the Federation.
2. Notwithstanding the provisions of clause 1, for a period of ten years after Merdeka Day, and thereafter until Parliament otherwise provides, the English language may be used in both Houses of Parliament, in the Legislative Assembly of every state and for all other official purposes.
3. Notwithstanding the provisions of clause 1, for a period of ten years after Merdeka Day, and thereafter until Parliament otherwise provides, the authoritative texts:
(a) of all bills to be introduced or amended thereto to be moved in either House of Parliament, and (b) of all acts of Parliament and all subsidiary legislation issued by the Federal Government,
shall be in the English language.
4. Notwithstanding the provisions of clause 1, for a period of ten years after Merdeka Day, and thereafter until Parliament otherwise provides, all proceedings in the Federal Court or a High Court shall be in the English language:
Provided that, if the Court and counsel on both sides agree, evidence taken in the language spoken by the witness need not be translated into or recorded in English.
5. Notwithstanding the provisions of clause 1, until Parliament otherwise provides, all proceedings in subordinate courts other than the taking of evidence, shall be in the English language.
1. No act of Parliament terminating or restricting the use of the English language for any of the purposes mentioned in clauses 2 to 5 of Article 152 shall come into operation as regards the use of the English language in any case mentioned in clause 2 of this article until ten years after Malaysia Day.
2. Clause 1 applies:
(a) to the use of the English language in either House of Parliament by a member for or from the State of Sabah or Sarawak; and
(b) to the use of the English language for proceedings in the High Court in Borneo or in a subordinate court in the State of Sabah or Sarawak, or for such proceedings in the Federal Court as are mentioned in clause 4; and
(c) to the use of the English language in the State of Sabah or Sarawak in the Legislative Assembly or for other official purposes, including the official purposes of the Federal Government.
3. Without prejudice to clause 1, no such act of Parliament as is there mentioned shall come into operation as regards the use of the English language for proceedings in the High Court of Borneo or for such proceedings in the Federal Court as mentioned in clause 4, until the act or the relevant provision of it has been approved by enactments of the legislatures of the States of Sabah and Sarawak, and no such act shall come into operation as regards the use of the English language in the State of Sabah or Sarawak in any other case mentioned in paragraph (b) or (c) of clause 2, until the act or the relevant provision of it has been approved by an enactment of the legislature of the state.
4. The proceedings in the Federal Court referred to in clauses 2 and 3 are any proceedings on appeal from the High Court in Borneo or a judge thereof, and any proceedings under clause 2 of Article 128 for the determination of a question which has arisen in proceedings before the High Court in Borneo or a subordinate court in the State of Sabah or Sarawak.
5. Notwithstanding anything in Article 152, in the State of Sabah or Sarawak, a native language in current use in the state may be used in native courts or for any code of native law and custom, and in the case of Sarawak, until otherwise provided by enactment of the Legislature, may be used by a member addressing the Legislative Assembly or any committee thereof.
2. No amendment shall be made to the Constitution without the concurrence of the Yang di-Perthua Negeri of the State of Sabah or Sarawak or each of the States of Sabah and Sarawak concerned, if the amendment is such as to affect the operation of the Constitution as regards any of the following matters...
(d) religion in the state, the use in the state or in Parliament of any language and the special treatment of natives of the state;
國會 (People's Majlis) 議員應具有下列資格
Constitution as adopted on 27 November 1997.
The national language of the Maldives shall be Dhivehi.
A person shall be qualified to be a member of the People's Majlis if he:
(d) is capable of reading and writing Arabic and Dhivedi script and numerals;
Constitution as adopted on 27 February 1992.
All Malians are born and live free and equal in their rights and duties. Any discrimination based on social origin, color, language, race, sex, religion, or political opinion is prohibited.
French is the official language.
Law will determine the method for making official and promoting national languages.
Constitution as adopted in 1964.
1. The national language of Malta is the Maltese language.
2. The Maltese and the English languages and such other languages as may be prescribed by Parliament, by a law passed by not less than two-thirds of all the members of the House of Representatives, shall be the official languages of Malta and the Administration may for all official purposes use any of such languages:
Provided that any person may address the Administration in any of the official languages and the reply of the Administration thereto shall be in such language.
3. The language of the courts shall be the Maltese language:
Provided that Parliament may make such provision for the use of the English language in such cases and under such conditions as it may prescribe.
4. The House of Representatives may, in regulating its own procedure, determine the language or languages that shall be used in parliamentary proceedings and records.
2. Any person who is arrested or detained shall be informed, at the time of his arrest or detention, in a language that he understands, of the reasons for his arrest or detention:
Provided that if an interpreter is necessary and is not readily available or if it is otherwise impracticable to comply with the provisions of this subsection at the time of the person's arrest or detention, such provisions shall be complied with as soon as practicable.
Save as otherwise provided by Parliament, every law shall be enacted in both the Maltese and English languages and, if there is any conflict between the Maltese and the English texts of any law, the Maltese text shall prevail.
◣Marshall Islands 馬紹爾群島
Constitution as adopted on 1 March 1979.
(2) No law and no executive or judicial action shall, either expressly, or in its practical application, discriminate against any persons on the basis of gender, race, color, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, place of birth, family status or descent.
Constitution as adopted on 12 July 1991.
The national languages are Arabic, Poular, Soninke, and Wolof; the official language is Arabic.
Constitution as adopted on 12 March 1968.
2. Any person who is arrested or detained shall be informed as soon as reasonably practical, in a language that he understands, of the reasons for his arrest or detention...
4. Where a person is detained in pursuance of any such provision of law as is referred to in subsection (1)(k) -
(a) he shall, as soon as is reasonably practicable and, in any case not more than 7 days after the commencement of his detention, be furnished with a statement in writing in a language that he understands specifying in detail the grounds upon which he is detained;
2. Every person who is charged with a criminal offence...
(b) shall be informed as soon as reasonably practicable, in a language that he understands and, in detail, of the nature of the offence;...
(f) shall be permitted to have without payment the assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand the language used at the trial of the offence,...
4. Where any person whose freedom of movement has been restricted in pursuance of subsection 3(a) or (b) so requests -
(a) he shall, as soon as is reasonably practicable and in any case not more than 7 days after the making of the request, be furnished with a statement in writing in a language that he understands, specifying the grounds for the imposition of the restriction;
Subject to section 34, a person shall be qualified to be elected as a member of the Assembly if, and shall not be so qualified unless, he... (d) is able to speak and, unless incapacitated by blindness or other physical cause, to read the English language with a degree of proficiency sufficient to enable him to take an active part in the proceedings of the Assembly.
The official language of the Assembly shall be English but any member may address the chair in French.
Constitution as adopted on 1917.
La nación mexicana tiene una composición
pluricultural sustentada originalmente en sus pueblos indigenas. La
ley protegera y promovera el desarrollo de sus lenguas, culturas,
usos, costumbres, recursos y formas especificas de organización
social, y garantizará a sus integrantes el efectivo acceso a
la jurisdicción del estado. En los juicios y procedimientos
agrarios en que aquellos sean parte, se tomaran en cuenta sus
practicas y costumbres juridicas en los terminos que establezca la
ley. El varon y la mujer son iguales ante la ley. Esta protegera la
organización y el desarrollo de la familia.
◣Micronesia (Federated States of) 密克羅尼西亞
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Constitution as adopted on 12 July 1978.
Equal protection of the laws may not be denied or impaired on account of sex, race, ancestry, national origin, language, or social status.
A person is ineligible to be a member of Congress unless he is at least 30 years of age on the day of election and has been a citizen of the Federated States of Micronesia for at least 15 years, and a resident of the state from which he is elected for at least 5 years. A person convicted of a felony by a state or national government court is ineligible to be a member of Congress. The Congress may modify this provision or prescribe additional qualifications; knowledge of the English language may not be a qualification.
At least every 10 years Congress shall reapportion itself. A state is entitled to at least one member of Congress on the basis of population in addition to the member elected at large. A state shall apportion itself by law into single member congressional districts. Each district shall be approximately equal in population after giving due regard to language, cultural, and geographic differences.
The Congress shall keep and publish a journal of its proceedings. A roll call vote entered on the journal shall be taken at the request of 115 of the members present. Legislative proceedings shall be conducted in the English language. A member may use his own language if not fluent in English, and Congress shall provide translation.
Constitution as adopted on 29 July 29 1994.
(2) The State recognizes and guarantees all its citizens the right to preserve, develop and express their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity.
(1) The national language of the Republic of Moldova is Moldovan, and its writing is based on the Latin alphabet.
(2) The Moldovan State acknowledges and protects the right to preserve, develop and use the Russian language and other languages spoken within the national territory of the country.
(3) The State will encourage and promote studies of foreign languages enjoying widespread international usage.
(4) The use of languages in the territory of the Republic of Moldova will be established by organic law.
(2) All citizens of the Republic of Moldova are equal before the law and the public authorities, without any discrimination as to race, nationality, ethnic origin, language, religion, sex, political choice, personal property or social origin.
(2) The State will enforce under the law the right of each person to choose his/her language in which teaching will be effected.
(3) In all forms of educational institutions the study of the country's official language will be ensured.
(2) Any citizen of the Republic of Moldova over 35 years of age that has been living in the country for at least 10 years and speaks the state language can run for the office of President of the Republic of Moldova. The appropriate organic law shall determine the manner of selecting the candidates aspiring to this office.
(1) Legal cases will be heard in the Moldovan language.
(2) Those persons who do not know or are unable to speak Moldovan have the right to take knowledge of all documents and items on file and to talk to the court through an interpreter.
(3) In accordance with the law legal hearings may also be conducted in a language that is found to be acceptable by the majority of the persons participating in the hearing.
Constitution as adopted on 24 December 1922.
The French language is the official language of the state.
Constitution as adopted on 13 January 1992.
(1)The Mongolian language is the official language of the State.
(2)Paragraph (1) does not affect the right of national minorities of other tongues to use their native languages in education and communication and in the pursuit of cultural, artistic, and scientific activities.
(2) No person may be discriminated on the basis of ethnic origin, language, race, age, sex, social origin or status, property, occupation or post, religion, opinion, or education. Everyone is a person before the law.
(1)Court trials are to be conducted in the Mongolian language.
(2)A person who does not know Mongolian is acquainted with all the facts of the case through translation and has the right to use his or her native language at the trial.
摩洛哥王國是主權獨立的穆斯林國家，官方語言是阿拉伯語，為大阿拉伯馬格里布* (Maghreb) 的一部分。
Constitution as adopted 10 March 1972 and revised 4 Sep 1992.
The Kingdom of Morocco, a Muslim Sovereign State whose official language is Arabic, constitutes a part of the Great Arab Maghreb.
Constitution as adopted in November 1990.
1. In the Republic of Mozambique, Portuguese is the official language.
2. The State recognizes the value of the national languages and shall promote their development and increased role as languages which are used in the daily life and in the education of citizens.